What Is Computer Hello friends! Today in this article we will read, What Is Computer?

What Is Computer

If you really want to know what a computer is, what the types of computer are, what the history of computers is, what are the features of computers and how computers are operated, then you are at the right place.

Because I am providing you complete computer related information.

Hope you will get through this article because in this article you will find everything that you are looking for. So let's start friends and read What Is Computer. What is the computer?

What Is Computer?

A computer is a digital electronic machine that can be programmed to perform arithmetic or logical operations (calculation) automatically.

That is, the computer manipulates information, or data.

Computers have the ability to store, recover and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to write documents, send emails, play games and do web browsers.

You can use it to create Spreadsheet, Presentation and even Video.

Simply put, a computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts raw data as input and processes it with a set of instructions (a program) to give the result as output.

It provides output only after performing mathematical and logical operations. It can process Numeric and Non-Numeric Calculations.

The word "computer" is derived from the Latin word "computare" which precisely means "to calculate".

A computer is designed to execute applications and provides a variety of solutions through integrated hardware and software components.

It works with the help of the program and represents the Decimal Numbers through a string of Binary Digits.

It also has a memory which stores the result of data, program and processing. Computer's Constituent like Machinery which includes Wire, Transistor, Circuit and Hard Disk are called Hardware.  Whereas, Program and Data are called Software.

It is believed that the Analytical Engine was the first computer invented by Charles Babbage in 1837.

In this, the punch card was used as a read-only memory. Charles Babbage is also called the father of computers.

If someone asks you who is the inventor of the computer, your answer should be Charles Babbage (If someone asks you who is the inventor of the computer, your answer should be Charles Babbage.)

What Is Computer word Come from Where?

A computer system is a "complete" computer that includes the hardware, software operating system and peripheral equipment (input/output devices) that are needed and used for complete operation. 

The term can also refer to a group of computers that are linked together and work together, e.g., computer networks.

A wide range of industrial and consumer products use computers as control systems.  Simple specials like Microwave Oven and Remote Control

Includes purpose-built equipment such as Industrial Robots and Factory Equipment such as Computer-Aided Design, as well as general-purpose equipment such as Personal Computers and Mobile Devices such as Smartphones.

Computers power the Internet, which connects billions of other computers and users.

Early computers were used only for calculations. Simple hand-operated instruments such as the abacus have helped people calculate since ancient times.

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were made to automate long tedious tasks.

More sophisticated electrical machines performed specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first Digital Electronic Counting Machine was developed during World War II.

The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and Monolithic Integrated Circuit (IC) chip technology in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and microcomputer revolution in the 1970s.  .

Computer speed, power, and versatility have increased dramatically since then, with the number of transistors increasing at a rapid rate (as predicted by Moore's Law), leading to an increase in the number of transistors from the late 20th century to the 21st century.

At the beginning of the digital revolution took place.

Traditionally, a modern computer has at least one processing element, usually a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory, usually a semiconductor memory chip.

The processing element performs arithmetic and logical operations, and an indexing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to the stored information.

Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screen, printer, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (eg, touch screens of the 2000s). 

Peripheral devices allow information to be received from external sources and they enable the result of the operation to be saved and recovered.

Origin of the word computer Origin of the Word! What Is Computer?

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of computer was in the book "The Young Man's Gleanings" by English author Richard Braithwaite in 1613.

The term "computer" is used to refer to a human computer, a person who calculates or calculates.  The term continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century.

Women were often hired as computers during the latter part of this period because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women.

The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of a computer in the 1640s, which means 'to calculate'. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that "the meaning of 'calculating machine' (of any kind) dates back to 1897.

History of Computers | History of What Is Computer?

Before counting, the primitive (tribal people) used the instrument. They used sticks, stones and bones as counting tools.  As the human mind and technology improved over time more computing devices were developed. Some of the more recent popular computing devices are described below.

1. Abacus

The history of computers begins with the birth of the abacus which is considered to be the first computer. The Chinese are said to have invented the abacus about 4,000 years ago.

It was a wooden rack with metal rods on which a garland of pearls was tied. The beads were moved by the abacus operator according to certain rules to perform arithmetic calculations. Abacus is still used in some countries such as China, Russia and Japan. An image of this device is shown below;

2. Napier's Bones

It was a manually operated calculating device invented by John Napier (1550–1617) of Murchiston.  In this calculation tool, he used 9 different ivory bars or bones marked with numbers to perform multiplication and division.

Therefore, the instrument came to be known as "Napier Bones".  It was also the first machine to use the decimal point.  An image of this device is shown below;

3. Pascaline

Pascaline is also known as arithmetic machine or adding machine.  It was invented between 1642 and 1644 by a French Mathematician-Philosopher, Bayes Pascal.  It is believed that it was the first mechanical and automatic calculator.

Pascal invented this machine to help his father, a tax accountant. It could only do addition and subtraction. It was a wooden box with a series of gears and wheels.  When one wheel spins one revolution, it spins the neighboring wheel.

A series of windows are provided at the top of the wheels to read the total. An image of this device is shown below;

4. Stepped Reckoner or Leibniz Wheel

It was developed in 1673 by a German Mathematician-Philosopher, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He improved on Pascal's invention to develop this machine.

It was a digital mechanical calculator called a Stepped Reckoner because it was made of drums instead of gears. An image of this device is shown below;

5. Differential Engine

In the early 1820s, it was designed by Charles Babbage, who is known as the "father of the modern computer".

It was a mechanical computer that could do simple calculations. It was a steam-powered computing machine designed to solve tables of numbers like a logarithm table.  An image of this device is shown below;

6. Analytical Engine

This calculating machine was also developed by Charles Babbage in 1830.  It was a mechanical computer that used punch cards as input.  It was able to solve any math problem and store the information as permanent memory.  An image of this device is shown below;

7. Tabulation Machine (What Is Computer)

It was invented in 1890 by an American Statistician, Herman Hollerith. It was a Mechanical Tabulator based on Punch Cards.

It can tabulate data and record or sort data or information. This machine was used in the 1890 US Census. Hollerith also started Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company which later became International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924. An image of this device is shown below;

8. Differential Analyzer

It was the first electronic computer introduced in the United States in 1930.  It was an analog device invented by Vannevar Bush. There are vacuum tubes in this machine to switch electrical signals to do calculations.  It could do 25 calculations in a few minutes. An image of this device is shown below;

9. Harvard Mark

The next major change in computer history began in 1937 when Howard H. Aiken planned to develop a machine that could perform a large number of calculations. In 1944, the Mark I computer was created as a partnership between IBM and Harvard. It was the first programmable digital computer.  An image of this device is shown below;

What Is Computer Generations?

A generation of computers refers to specific improvements in computer technology over time. In 1946, electronic routes called circuits were developed for counting. It replaced the gears and other mechanical parts used for counting in previous computing machines.

In each new generation, the circuits became smaller and more advanced than the previous generation.

Miniaturization helped to increase the speed, memory and power of the computer. There are five generations of computers which are described below.

1. First Generation of Computer | What Is Computer?

The computers of the first generation (1946–1959) were slow, huge and expensive.  In these computers, vacuum tubes were used as the basic components of CPU and memory.

These computers mainly relied on Batch Operating System and Punch Card.  In this generation, Magnetic Tape and Paper Tape were used as Output and Input Devices.

Some of the popular first generation computers are

  •  ENIAC
  • IBM-701
  • IBM-650

2. Second Generation Computers | What Is Computer Second Generation?

The second generation (1959-1965) was the era of transistor computers.

These computers used transistors that were cheaper, denser and consumed less power;  This made transistor computers faster than the first generation computers.

In this generation, magnetic core was used as primary memory and magnetic disk and tape were used as secondary storage. 

Assembly language and programming languages ​​such as COBOL and FORTRAN, and batch processing and multiprogramming operating systems were used in these computers.

There are some popular second generation computers.

  • IBM 1620
  • IBM 7094
  • CDC 1604
  • CDC 3600
  • UNIVAC 1108

3.Third Generation Computers

Integrated Circuits (IC) were used in place of transistors in third generation computers. A single IC can pack a large number of transistors, which increases the power of the computer and reduces the cost.

Computers also became more reliable, efficient and smaller in size.

These generation computers used Remote Processing, Time-Sharing, Multi-Programming as Operating System.

Also, high level programming languages ​​such as FORTRON-II to IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, ALGOL-68 were used in this generation.

Some of the most popular computers are third generation.

  • IBM-360 series.
  • Honeywell-6000 series.
  • PDP(Personal Data Processor)
  • IBM-370/168
  • TDC-316

4. Fourth Generation Computers

Fourth generation (1971–1980) computers used integrated (VLSI) circuits on a much larger scale.

A chip containing millions of transistors and other circuit elements.  These chips made this generation of computers more compact, powerful, faster and economical.

Real Time, Time Sharing and Distributed Operating System were used in these generation of computers. Programming languages ​​like C, C ++, DBASE were also used in this generation.

There are some popular fourth generation computers.

  • DEC 10
  • STAR 1000
  • PDP 11
  • CRAY-1(Supercomputer)
  • CRAY-XMP(Supercomputer)

5. Fifth Generation Computers |  Fifth Generation of What Is Computer?

In fifth generation computers (from 1980 to the present), VLSI technology was replaced by ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration).  This made it possible to produce microprocessor chips with ten million electronic components.

This generation of computers used Parallel Processing Hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software.  Programming languages ​​used in this generation were C, C++, Java, .Net, etc.

There are some popular fifth generation computers.

  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • NoteBook
  • UltraBook
  • ChromeBook

Types of Computers

We can classify computers in two ways: on the basis of data handling capabilities and size.  There are three types of computers on the basis of data handling capabilities and on the basis of size computers can be of five types.

Computers based on data handling capabilities.

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer
  3. Hybrid Computer

1. What is  Analog Computer?

Analog computers are designed to process analog data. Analog data is continuous data that is constantly changing and cannot contain discrete values.

We can say that analog computers are used where we don't always need exact values ​​like speed, temperature, pressure and current.

Analog computers accept data directly from the measuring device without converting them into numbers and codes.  They measure continuous changes in physical quantities and usually produce output in the form of readings on a dial or scale.

Speedometers and Mercury Thermometers are examples of analog computers.

2. What is digital computer?

Digital computers are designed to perform calculations and logical operations at high speed.  It accepts raw data as input in the form of Digits or Binary Numbers (0 and 1) and processes it with a program stored in its memory to produce the output.

All modern computers like laptops, including desktops, smartphones that we use at home or office, are digital computers.

3. What Is Hybrid Computer?

What Is Hybrid Computer has features of both Analog and Digital Computers. It is as fast as an analog computer and has the same memory and accuracy as a digital computer.

It can process both continuous and discrete data. It accepts analog signals and converts them into digital form before processing. What Is Hybrid Computer.

Hence, it is widely used in specialized applications where both analog and digital data are processed.

For example, petrol pumps use a processor that converts the measurement of fuel flow into quantity and price. Similarly, they are used in Airplanes, Hospitals and Scientific Applications. What Is Hybrid Computer.

Computer By Size

  1.  Supercomputer
  2. Mainframe Computer
  3. Mainframe or Minicomputer
  4. Workstation
  5. Microcomputer

1. What Is Super Computer?

What Is Super Computer the largest and fastest computers. They are designed to process large amounts of data.

A supercomputer can process trillions of instructions in a second. It has thousands of interconnected processors.

Supercomputers are particularly used in scientific and engineering applications such as weather forecasting, scientific simulation and nuclear energy research. 

The first supercomputer was developed in 1976 by Roger Cray.

2. What Is Mainframe?

What Is Mainframe are designed to support hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.

They can support multiple programs at the same time.

This means that they can execute different processes simultaneously. These characteristics of mainframe computers make them ideal for large organizations.

Such as banking and telecommunications sectors that need to manage and process high volumes of data.

3. What Is Mini Computer?

It is a medium size multiprocessing computer. It has two or more processors and can support 4 to 200 users at a time.  Miniframe computers are used in institutions and departments for tasks such as billing, accounting and inventory management.

What Is Mini Computer is located between the mainframe and the microcomputer as it is smaller than the mainframe but larger than the microcomputer.

4. Workstation 

A workstation is a single user computer designed for technical or scientific applications. It has a fast microprocessor, a large amount of RAM and high-speed graphic adapters.

It usually performs a specific task with great expertise;  Well, they are of different types such as Graphics Workstations, Music Workstations and Engineering Design Workstations.

5. What Is Micro Computer?

Micro Computer is also known as a personal computer.

It is a general-purpose computer designed for personal use. It has a microprocessor in the form of a Central Processing Unit, Memory, Storage Area, Input Unit and Output Unit.

Laptop and desktop computers are examples of microcomputers. They are suitable for personal work that may be doing an assignment, watching a movie, or being in the office for office work. What Is Micro Computer.

What Are The Components Of Computer?

There are 5 main components of a computer which are given below: 

  1. Input Devices
  2. CPU
  3. Output Devices
  4. Primary memory
  5. Secondary Memory

The operations of the components of the computer are given below.

1. Input

It is the process of entering raw data, instructions and information into the computer. This is done with the help of input devices.

2. Storage

To store data and instructions in the computer, there is primary memory and secondary memory.

It stores the data before sending it to the CPU for processing and also stores the processed data before displaying it as output.

3. Processing

It is the process of converting raw data into useful information. This process is done by the CPU of the computer.

It takes the raw data from the storage, processes it and then sends the processed data back to the storage.

4. Output

It is the process of presenting the processed data through the output devices like Monitor, Printer and Speaker.

5. Controlling

This operation is done by the Control Unit which is part of the CPU.  The control unit makes sure that all the basic operations are executed in the correct manner and order.

Basic Features of Computer

  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Diligence
  • Reliability
  • Memory
  • Logical
  • Versatility
  • Automation
  • Consistency
  • Remembrance Power

1. Speed ​​

The speed of computer equipment is extremely fast, because it can do any calculation in seconds. It is one of the major features of the computer.

This feature of the computer also enhances the versatility of the computer. It can open any website or application in the blink of an eye.

2. Accuracy

This is an incredible feature of computers, which is their high level of accuracy.

It is capable of doing 100% accurate calculations. Nothing in this world is true or accurate, but the computer proves these statements to be false with its precise results, calculations and logic.

3. Passion  Diligence

Computers are free from fatigue, lack of concentration etc. It can work for hours without making any mistakes.

4. Reliability

A computer is a dependable machine capable of performing all tasks and operations with high speed and almost perfect accuracy. Like humans, computer software and hardware respond to requests or demands made by users.

5. Memory

Memory on a computer is compared to the human brain. It is used to store data.

Computer memory is the storage space on the computer where the data to be processed and the processing instructions are stored. It has both primary and secondary memory.

The task we are currently working on is saved in the main memory, and the work we saved is saved until we delete it.

6. Logical

Computer systems have certain characteristics, such as the ability to think, reason and learn.

These characteristics of computers help them to work logically and these features have been further developed into what we know today as Artificial Intelligence.

7. Versatility

Because computers are so versatile, they can perform almost any task that can be reduced to a series of logical steps.

It refers to the ability or adaptation to switch quickly from one task to another and the computer can easily transition from one task to another.

8. Automation

Automation is the use of technology to accomplish a task with the least amount of human interaction. In computing, automation is usually accomplished through the use of a program, a script, or batch processing.

9. Compatibility | Consistency

In the context of a database, consistency means that the data cannot be written as it would violate the database's own rules for valid data.

10. Memory Power | Remembrance Power

A computer is capable of storing an unlimited amount of information or data.  Any information can be stored and retrieved for an unlimited number of years, for as long as you need it.

It totally depends on you how much data you want to store on the computer and when you want to lose or recover it.

After reading all this, you should also know how to run a computer, so let's friends, you know how to run a computer?

What Are The Uses Of Computer?

Everyone wants me to learn how to operate a computer, but it can be a bit difficult for beginners to operate a computer, but after a short time it will become easy for you too, how? Let me tell you how the computer is operated.

The basic information about how to operate a computer is given below through the steps.

1. Power up the computer system

First you need to connect your CPU and monitor's power line to a power board so that enough power can go to your computer system.

Because the computer needs electricity to run, there is no battery in it. You would know that.  Laptops have a battery that can run your laptop for several hours even after the power goes out.

2. Turn on the main power Switch

After turning on the system, you need to turn on the main switch of your CPU and monitor. As shown in the picture below.

3. Now you can play whatever you want

You just have to do these two things, after which your computer will start, now you can play anything you want in it, whether you run Google Chrome, you search any website Play games, watch videos on YouTube, etc.

What Is Computer - Hope all of you must have understood that What Is Computer, in this article you will find, What Is Computer, what is the history of computer, what are types of computer, computer,What are the main features of and how do you run the computer? Full information given about

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